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        擱淺瑞氏海豚臨床檢查、病理解剖及其死因分析
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        1.中國水產科學研究院南海水產研究所熱帶水產研究開發中心;2.海南富力海洋歡樂世界開發有限公司;3.三亞崖州灣農漁業發展有限公司

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        Clinical examination, pathological anatomy and cause of death of stranded Grampus griseus
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          摘要:

          近幾年,瑞氏海豚(Grampus griseus)在我國海南擱淺的案例較多。2021年6月12日和2022年10月11日各發現一頭瑞氏海豚(A、B)分別擱淺于海南省萬寧和樂鎮大花角海域和文昌市鋪前鎮木蘭灣海域,由于傷勢和病情過重,分別于2021年6月14日14時25分和2022年11月14日死亡。本研究檢測了2頭瑞士海豚的血常規和血液生化指標,并通過解剖對其死亡原因進行分析。檢測結果顯示,2頭海豚皮下脂肪較薄,均有營養不良的表現,并且2頭海豚血液中紅細胞總數、血紅蛋白含量與紅細胞平均體積均高于正常范圍。瑞氏海豚B尸檢發現,其內臟炎癥出血嚴重,呼吸系統和消化系統存在大量寄生蟲,并且消化系統內無食物以及其他異物。瑞氏海豚A的死亡是體表外傷感染引發并發癥,胃腸可能存在炎癥而長期無法進食,營養高度不良,心臟及肝臟損傷等原因綜合影響。瑞氏海豚B由于呼吸系統和消化系統被大量寄生蟲寄生,導致肺氣腫,肺出血,黏膜脫落出血和存在較多潰瘍灶,并且擱淺時間久表現嚴重高滲性脫水,重癥肝炎、腎炎、腎出血等多器官病變,最終全身敗血而亡。本研究通過檢測擱淺瑞氏海豚的血常規和血液生化指標,并進行病理解剖分析其死因,為擱淺海豚的救助工作提供參考數據,具有較高的理論參考價值和科研價值。

          Abstract:

          There were many cases of Grampus griseus stranding in Hainan Province in recent years. On June 12, 2021 and October 11, 2022, one Grampus griseus (A and B) was found stranded in the waters of Dahua Jiao, Wanning Hele Town, Hainan Province, and Mulan Bay, Puqian Town, Wenchang City, Hainan Province, respectively. Due to severe injuries and illness, the dolphin died at 14:25 on June 14, 2021 and November 14, 2022, respectively. In this study, blood routine and blood biochemical indexes of two dolphins were detected, and the cause of death was analyzed by anatomy. The results showed that the subcutaneous fat of the two dolphins was thin, and they were all malnourished, and RBC, MCH and MCV in the blood of the two dolphins were higher than the normal range. The post-mortem examination revealed that Grampus griseus B had severe inflammation and bleeding in its internal organs, a large number of parasites in its respiratory and digestive systems, and no food or other foreign matter in its digestive system. The death of Grampus griseus A was caused by complications caused by body surface trauma infection, possibly gastrointestinal inflammation and long-term inability to eat, high malnutrition, heart and liver damage and other causes. Due to a large number of parasites in the respiratory system and digestive system, Grampus griseus B was infected with emphysema, pulmonary hemorrhage, mucous membrane exudation and bleeding, and there are many ulcers. Besides, it showed severe hyperosmolar dehydration, severe hepatitis, nephritis, renal hemorrhage and other multi-organ lesions for a long time after stranding, and finally died of systemic sepsis. In this study, blood routine and blood biochemical indexes of stranded Grampus griseus are detected, and the cause of death is analyzed by pathological autopsy, which provided reference data for the rescue work of stranded dolphins and had high theoretical reference value and scientific research value.

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        • 收稿日期:2022-12-20
        • 最后修改日期:2023-08-25
        • 錄用日期:2023-11-17
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